Main Article Content


Artikel penelitian ini menawarkan re-desain proses awal kebijakan tingkat lokal. Simulation testing digunakan untuk melihat lebih jauh beberapa konsep yang dapat memengaruhi proses awal kebijakan. Konsep tersebut adalah difusi kebijakan dan dynamic system model, konsep ini digali melalui deduktif untuk mencari beberapa temuan literatur yang relevan dengan tema penelitian. Metode yang digunakan model-building method, sebuah cara untuk merekonstruksi ulang teori dengan cara membangun dari berbagai model. Model yang berasal dari teori, atau menyederhanakan teori yang melibatkan konsep atau hubungan antara konsep internal. Hasil penelitian ini mengungkapkan, meningkatnya atau menurunnya kepercayaan publik juga dipengaruhi oleh kebijakan. Diperlukan cara yang dianggap baru karena probabilitasnya lebih tinggi untuk menghasilkan kebijakan berkualitas dengan mensimulasikan berbagai konsep yang dianggap dapat menerjemahkan berbagai fenomena masalah publik dalam bentuk kebijakan. Disaat ketidakpercayaan publik meningkat, maka itu sebagai respon, dan peringatan kepada pemerintah untuk lebih berupaya meningkatkan kepercayaan publik melalui kebijakan.


Kepercayaan publik redesain proses kebijakan

Article Details

Author Biography

Lesmana Rian Andhika, Universitas Padjadjaran

Dosen Program Studi Ilmu Administrasi

How to Cite
Rian Andhika, L. (2018). Meningkatkan Kepercayaan Publik Terhadap Pemerintah Melalui Redesain Proses Kebijakan. JIP (Jurnal Ilmu Pemerintahan) : Kajian Ilmu Pemerintahan Dan Politik Daerah, 3(1), 24-42.


  1. Aghion, P., Algan, Y., Cahuc, P., & Shleifer, A. (2010). Regulation and Distrust. The Quarterly Journal of Economics, 125(3), 1015-1049. doi:10.3386/w14648
  2. Anderson, J. E. (2015). Public Policymaking: An Introduction (8th ed.). Stamford, CT: Cengage Learning.
  3. Attard, J., Orlandi, F., Scerri, S., & Auer, S. (2015). A Systematic Review of Open Government Data Initiatives. Government Information Quarterly, 32(4), 399-418. doi:10.1016/j.giq.2015.07.006
  4. Autant-Bernard, C., Fadairo, M., & Massard, N. (2013). Knowledge Diffusion and Innovation Policies Within The European Regions: Challenges Based on Recent Emperical Evidence. Research Policy, 42(1), 196-210. doi:10.1016/j.respol.2012.07.009
  5. Baybeck, B., Berry, W. D., & Siegel, D. A. (2011). A Strategic Theory of Policy Diffusion via Intergovernmental Competition. The Journal of Politics, 73(1), 232-247. doi:10.1017/S0022381610000988
  6. Bender, K., Keller, S., & Willing, H. (2014). The Role of International Policy Transfer and Diffusion for Policy Change in Social Protection-A Review of the State of the Art. International Policy Learning and Policy Change: Scientific Inputs for the Dialogue on Social Protection with Global Partners (pp. 1-18). Bonn: Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH and Bonn-Rhein-Sieg University of Applied Sciences / International Centre for Sustainable Development (IZNE).
  7. Bérard, C., Cloutier, L. M., & Cassivi, L. (2016). The Effects of Using System Dynamics-Based Decision Support Models: Testing Policy-
  8. Makers’ Boundaries in a Complex Situation. Journal of Decision Systems, 26(1), 45-63. doi:10.1080/12460125.2016.1204212
  9. Bianco, W. T. (1994). Trust: Representatives and Constituents. Michigan: The University of Michigan Press.
  10. Blind, P. K. (2006). Building Trust in Government int the Twenty-Firts Century: Review of Literature and Emerging Issues. 7th Global Forum on Reinventing Government Building Trust in Government (pp. 1-31). Vienna: United Nations.
  11. Boushey, G. (2010). Policy Diffusion Dynamics in America. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.
  12. Bovens, M., & Hart, P. (2016). Revisiting the Study of Policy Failures. Journal of European Public Policy, 23(5), 653-666. doi:10.1080/13501763.2015.1127273
  13. Bozeman, B. (2000). Bureaucracy and Red Tape. New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
  14. Braun, D., & Gilardi, F. (2006). Taking 'Galton's Problem Seriously: Towards Theory of Policy Diffusion. Journal of Theoretical Politics, 18(3), 298-322. doi:10.1177/0951629806064351
  15. Caiden, G. E. (1991). What Really Is Public Maladministration? Public Administration Review, 51(6), 486-493.
  16. Caiden, G. E. (2009). Administrative Reform. Chicago: Aldine Transaction.
  17. Chanley, V. A., Rudolph, T. J., & Rahn, W. H. (2000). The Origins and Consequences of Public Trust in Government. Public Opinion Quarterly, 64(3), 239-256. doi:10.1086/317987
  18. Chen, W. Y., & Hua, J. (2015). Citizens' Distrust of Government and Their Protest Responses in a Contingent Valuation Study of Urban Heritage Trees in Guangzhou, China. Journal of Environmental Management, 155, 40-48. doi:10.1016/j.jenvman.2015.03.002
  19. Cheung, A. B. (2013). Public Governance Reform in Hong Kong: Rebuilding Trust and Governability. International Journal of Public Sector Management, 26(5), 421-436. doi:10.1108/IJPSM-05-2013-0070
  20. Cierco, T. (2013). Public administration reform in Macedonia. Communist and Post-Communist Studies, 46(4), 481-491. doi:10.1016/j.postcomstud.2013.08.002
  21. Coyle, R. (1996). System Dynamics Modelling: A Practical Approach. New York: Springer-Science+Business Media.
  22. Duggan, J. (2016). System Dynamics Modeling with R. Switzerland : Springer International Publishing.
  23. Fähnrich, B. (2013). Integrating Concepts of International Governmental Communication A Framework for Further Research. Studies in Communication Sciences, 13(1), 15-23. doi:10.1016/j.scoms.2013.01.001
  24. Fay, D. L., & Wenger, J. B. (2015). The Political Structure of Policy Diffusion. The Policy Studies Journal, 44(3), 349-365. doi:10.1111/psj.12122
  25. Frederickson, et al. (2012). The Public Administration Theory Primer. Boulder: Westview Press.
  26. Fukuyama, F. (1995). Trust: The Social Virtues and the Creation of Prosperity. New York, NY: Free Press.
  27. Fuoli, M., & Paradis, C. (2014). A Model of Trust-Repair Discourse. Journal of Pragmatics, 74, 52-69. doi:10.1016/j.pragma.2014.09.001
  28. Gerston, L. N. (2010). Public Policy Making Process and Principles (3rd ed.). New York: M.E. Sharpe.
  29. Gilardi, F. (2016). Four Ways We Can Improve Policy Diffusion Research. State Politics & Policy Quarterly, 16(1), 8-21. doi:10.1177/1532440015608761
  30. Grindle, M. S. (1980). Politics and Policy Implementation in the Third World. New Jersey: Princeton University Press.
  31. Grindle, M. S., & Thomas, J. W. (1989). Policy Makers, Policy Choices, and Policy Outcomes: The Political Economy of Reform in Developing Countries. Policy Science, 22(3-4), 213-248. doi:10.1007/BF00136320
  32. Grimmelikhuijsen, S., & Knies, E. (2015). Validating a Scale for Citizen Trust in Government Organizations. International Review of Administrative Science, 0(0), 1-19. doi:10.1177/0020852315585950
  33. Hacek, M., Kukovic, S., & Brezovsek, M. (2013). Problems of Corruption and Distrust in Political and Administrative Institutions in Slovenia. Communist and Post-Communist Studies, 46(2), 255-261. doi:10.1016/j.postcomstud.2013.03.004
  34. Hardin, R. (2002). Trust and Trustworthiness. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.
  35. Hill, M. (2005). The Public Policy Process (4th ed.). Essex: Pearson Education.
  36. Holzhacker, R. L., Wittek, R., & Woltjer, J. (2016). Decentralization and Governance in Indonesia. Switzerland: Springer International Publishing AG.
  37. Jaccard, J., & Jacoby, J. (2010). Theory Construction and Model-Building Skills: A Practical Guide for Social Scientists. New York, NY: Guilford Press.
  38. Kay, A. (2006). The Dynamics of Public Policy: Theory and Evidence. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.
  39. Kementrian Dalam Negeri. (2016, Juni 21). Unggah 3.143 Perda, Mendagri Berterimakasih ke Semua Pihak. Retrieved from Kementrian Dalam Negeri :
  40. Kiani, B., & Pourfakhraei, M. A. (2010). A System Dynamic Model for Production and Consumption Policy in Iran Oil and Gas Sector. Energy Policy, 38(12), 7764-7774. doi:10.1016/j.enpol.2010.08.036
  41. Kim, S. (2010). Public Trust in Government in Japan and South Korea: Does the Rise of Critical Citizens Matter? Public Administration Review, 70(5), 801-810. doi:10.1111/j.1540-6210.2010.02207.x
  42. Kim, S., & Han, C. (2014). Administrative Reform in South Korea: New Public Management and the Bureaucracy. International Review of Administrative Science, 0(0), 1-19. doi:10.1177/0020852314558034
  43. Lenard, P. T. (2015). The Political Philosophy of Trust and Distrust in Democracies and Beyond. The Monist, 98(4), 353–359. doi:10.1093/monist/onv017
  44. Lindstedt, C., & Naurin, D. (2010). Transparency is not Enough: Making Transparency Effective in Reducing Corruption. International Political Science Review, 31(3), 301-322. doi:10.1177/0192512110377602
  45. Lindvall, J. (2011). The Political Foundations of Trust and Distrust: Reforms and Protests in France. West European Politics, 34(2), 296-316. doi:10.1080/01402382.2011.546575
  46. Luenberger, D. G. (1979). Introduction to Dynamic System: Theory, Models and Applications. New York: John Wiley & Sons.
  47. Maggetti, M., & Gilardi, F. (2015). Problems (and Solutions) in the Measurement of Policy Diffusion Mechanisms. Journal of Public Policy, 00(0), 1-21. doi:10.1017/S0143814X1400035X
  48. Marková, I., & Gillespie, A. (2012). Trust and Conflict: Representation, Culture and Dialogue. East Sussex: Routledge.
  49. Meseguer, C., & Gilardi, F. (2009). What is New in the Study of Policy Diffusion? Review of International Political Economy, 16(3), 527-543. doi:10.1080/09692290802409236
  50. Michels, A., & Graaf, L. D. (2010). Examining Citizen Participation: Local Participatory Policy Making and Democracy. Local Government Studies, 36(4), 477-491. doi:10.1080/03003930.2010.494101
  51. Nicholson-Crotty, S., & Carley, S. (2016). Effectiveness, Implementation, and Policy Diffusion: Or “Can We Make That Work for Us?”. State Politics & Policy Quarterly, 16(1), 78-97. doi:10.1177/1532440015588764
  52. OECD. (2016, 12 12). Trust in Government. Retrieved from OECD:
  53. Ombudsman Republik Indonesia. (2016). Laporan Tahunan 2015. Jakarta: Ombudsman Republik Indonesia.
  54. Oomsels, et al. (2016). Functions and Dysfunctions of Interorganizational Trust and Distrust in the Public Sector. Administration & Society, 1-29. doi:10.1177/0095399716667973
  55. O'Toole, L. J. (1986). Policy Recommendations for Multi-Actor Implementation: An Assessment of the Field. Journal of Public Policy, 6(2), 181-210. doi:10.1017/S0143814X00006486
  56. Peisakhin, L. (2012). Transparency and Corruption: Evidence From India. The Journal of Law & Economics, 55(1), 129-149. doi:10.1086/663727
  57. Purwanto, E. A., & Sulistyastuti, D. R. (2015). Implementasi Kebijakan Publik; Konsep dan Aplikasinya di Indonesia (2nd ed.). Yogyakarta: Gava Media.
  58. Rashedi, R., & Hegazy, T. (2015). Strategic Policy Analysis for Infrastructure Rehabilitation Using System Dynamics. Structure and Infrastructure Engineering, 12(6), 667-681. doi:10.1080/15732479.2015.1038723
  59. Rindermann, H., Kodila-Tedika, O., & Christainsen, G. (2015). Cognitive Capital, Good Governance, and the Wealth of Nations. Intelligence, 51, 98-108. doi:10.1016/j.intell.2015.06.002
  60. Rosanvallon, P. (2008). Counter Democracy: Politics in an Age
  61. Distrust. New York: Cambridge University Press.
  62. Rosenbloom, D. H., O'Leary, R., & Chanin, J. (2010). Public Administration and Law (3rd ed.). Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.
  63. Rowell, D., & Wormley, D. N. (1997). System Dynamics: An Introdustion. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
  64. Salminen, A., & Ikola-Norrbacka, R. (2010). Trust, Good Governance and Unethical Actions in Finnish Public Administration. International Journal of Public Sector Management, 23(7), 647-668. doi:10.1108/09513551011078905
  65. Sayyadi, R., & Awasthi, A. (2016). A System Dynamics Based Simulation Model to Evaluate Regulatory Policies for Sustainable Transportation Planning. International Journal of Modelling and Simulation, 37(1), 25-35. doi:10.1080/02286203.2016.1219806
  66. Saz-Carranza, A., & Serra, A. (2009). Institutional Sources of Distrust in Government Contracting. Public Management Review, 11(3), 263-279. doi:10.1080/14719030902798206
  67. Shabbir, C. C., & Rondinelli, D. A. (2007). Decentralization Governance Emerging Concept and Practice. Washington DC: Brooking Institute Press.
  68. Shipan, C. R., & Volden, C. (2008). The Mechanisms of Policy Diffusion. American Journal of Political Science, 52(4), 840-857. Retrieved from
  69. Shipan, C. R., & Volden, C. (2012). Policy Diffusion: Seven Lessons for Scholars and Practitioners. Public Administration Review, 72(6), 788-796. doi:10.111/j.1540-6210.2012.02610.x.
  70. Smith, K. B., & Larimer, C. W. (2009). The Public Policy Theory Primer. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
  71. Stewart, J. (2009). Public Policy Values. Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan.
  72. Tambulasi, R. I., & Kayuni, H. M. (2007). Decentralization Opening a New Window for Corruption: An Accountability Assessment of Malawi’s Four Years of Democratic Local Governance. Journal of Asian and African Studies, 42(2), 163-183. doi:10.1177/0021909607074866
  73. Tang, M., & Huhe, N. (2014). The Variant Effect of Decentralization on Trust in National and Local Governments in Asia. Political Studies, 64(1), 216-234. doi:10.1111/1467-9248.12177
  74. Tholen, B. (2015). Citizen Participation and Bureaucratization: the Participatory Turn Seen Through a Weberian Lens. International Review of Administrative Sciences, 0(0), 1-19. doi:10.1177/0020852314548152
  75. Tolbert, P. S. (2010, May 04). Robert Michels and the Iron Law of Oligarchy. Retrieved from Cornell University, ILR School:
  76. Trägårdh, L. (2013). Commentary: The Politics of Distrust. Journal of Civil Society, 9(1), 100-104. doi:10.1080/17448689.2013.784503
  77. Vincent, A. (2010). Modern Political Ideologies (3rd ed.). West Sussex: Wiley-Blackwell.
  78. Volden, C., Ting, M. M., & Carpenter, D. P. (2008). A Formal Model of Learning and Policy Diffusion. The American Political Science Review, 102(3), 319-332. Retrieved from
  79. Walker, J. L. (1969). The Diffusion of Innovations Among The American States. American Political Science Review, 63(3), 880-899. Retrieved from
  80. Walle, S. V., & Bouckaert, G. (2003). Public Service Performance and Trust in Government: The Problem of Causality. International Journal of Public Administration, 26(8-9), 891-913. doi:10.1081/PAD-120019352
  81. Walle, S. V., & Six, F. (2014). Trust and Distrust as Distinct Concepts: Why Studying Distrust in Institutions is Important. Journal of Comparative Policy Analysis: Research and Practice, 16(2), 158-174. doi: 10.1080/13876988.2013.785146
  82. Walle, S. V., Roosbroek, S. V., & Bouckaert, G. (2008). Trust in the Public Sector: Is There Any Evidence for a Long-Term Decline? International Review of Administrative Science, 74(1), 47-64. doi:10.1177/0020852307085733
  83. Wilkes, R. (2015). We Trust in Government, Just Not in Yours: Race, Partisanship, and Political Trust, 1958–2012. Social Science Research, 49(1), 356-371. doi:10.1016/j.ssresearch.2014.08.008